Posts Tagged ‘Daniel Webster’

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The General William Tecumseh Sherman Monument

There is a group of statues spread out through much of the central and northwest areas of the city entitled “The Civil War Monuments in Washington, D.C.”  One of the largest and most imposing of these monuments is the General William Tecumseh Sherman Monument. The massive monument is located in a prominent spot in President’s Park, southeast of The White House and immediately south of The U.S. Department of the Treasury Building, at the intersection of 15th Street, Pennsylvania Avenue and Treasury Place (MAP).  And it was this statue that was the destination for this lunchtime bike ride.

Tecumseh Sherman, named for the famous Shawnee Indian chief, was born on February 8, 1820, in Lancaster, Ohio. He was the sixth of eleven children born into the prominent family of Charles Robert Sherman and Mary Hoyt Sherman. His father was a successful lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court, but died unexpectedly in 1829 when William was only nine years old, leaving his mother with eleven children and no inheritance or means of support. It was at that point that a neighbor named Thomas Ewing, also a successful lawyer, offered to help by taking in one of Mary’s children. Tecumseh was chosen because Ewing wanted the “smartest boy,” and after some discussion between Mary and her oldest daughter, it was decided that he was the best choice.

After being taken in by Thomas Ewing, Sherman was baptized and given the Christian name “William” by Ewing’s devoutly Catholic wife, Maria. She was shocked that the boy had not been baptized and remedied it immediately after he became a part of their family. She also felt the name “Tecumseh” was not an appropriate name, hence he was given“William” as his new first name.  He almost never used the name William though.  When he signed his name he used the signature “W.T. Sherman”, and he was most often referred to by the nickname “Cump” throughout most of his life.

Two years later Thomas Ewing was elected to the U.S. Senate, and went on to serve as Secretary of the Treasury before becoming the first Secretary of the Interior. He became a fixture of D.C. society, and William Tecumseh Sherman’s star rose along with that of his foster father. One of the most significant events during this time for young William came when his foster father secured him a coveted appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. He entered West Point as a cadet at the age of 16, and would go on to excel academically, graduating near the top of his class.

The other most significant result of being raised in the Ewing family was growing up with his foster sister, named Eleanor Boyle (“Ellen”) Ewing.  After obtaining Thomas Ewing’s blessing, Sherman would go on to marry his foster sister.  The two were married at a wedding hosted by the Ewings at Blair House, with President Zachary Taylor and his entire cabinet in attendance, as well as Senators Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.  William and Ellen would remain married and devoted to each other for the rest of their lives.

After graduating from West Point in 1840, William Tecumseh Sherman would go on to spend 13 years in the military, serving with honor but no real distinction. After resigning from the military, Sherman attempted several different careers, spending time in California as a vice president of that state’s first railroad, and later as a banker. He then moved to Kansas, where he worked as a lawyer like his father and foster father, and later he moved to Louisiana where he was the superintendent of the Louisiana Military Academy. It was at during his time in Louisiana that it seceded from the Union, and although Sherman was not anti-slavery and sympathized with the South, he was very much against the idea of secession. Stating he could not support an institution that would supply troops against the United States government, Sherman resigned his post as superintendent of the Louisiana Military Academy and moved back north, to D.C.

After returning to D.C., and readying himself to join the Union Army, Sherman met with the newly-elected President, Abraham Lincoln. But he came away from the meeting so discouraged about the lack of understanding about what he viewed as an impending war that he moved to St. Louis and took a position as the president of a streetcar company. The very next month, Sherman was offered the chief clerkship of the War Department with a promise to be made Assistant Secretary of War when Congress came back into session, but he declined.  Later, however, through the intervention of his prominent now father-in-law, Sherman returned to D.C., and after a one-on-one meeting with President Lincoln he was commissioned a Colonel in the U.S. Army.

After the Battle of Manassas he quickly was promoted to Brigadier General, and then Commanding General of the Department of the Cumberland Territory. Interestingly, Sherman is upset inasmuch as never wanted to be the one in charge, a sentiment that he had previously conveyed to President Lincoln during their meeting. But you have to be careful what you wish for, because he soon enough got his wish. In October of 1861, Secretary of War Simon Cameron came to the conclusion that Sherman was unfit to command, and he was relieved of his command and transferred. Within two months, Sherman was put on indefinite leave and returned to his boyhood home in Lancaster, Ohio. There he became so despondent that he contemplated suicide.

Had Sherman remained the president of a street car company in Missouri instead of returning to D.C. and being commissioned a Colonel in the Union Army, or had he gone through with committing suicide after he was relieved of his command, the Civil War may have been very different. Instead, Sherman returned to duty with the help of his father-in-law, and went on to be considered by historians as one of the ablest Union generals of the war. He was the originator and the first practitioner of what the twentieth century would come to know as “total war”, and the harshness of the “scorched earth” policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States would enable him to command his troops to decisive military victories across the South from Chattanooga to Atlanta to the famous “march to the sea” across Georgia. In these campaigns and his later push northward from Savannah through the Carolinas, Sherman’s troops carried the war to the Southern home front and blazed a wide path of destruction that delivered a death blow to the Confederacy’s will and ability to fight.  For the accompanying destruction, his name is still cursed in many parts of the South.

Sherman’s service during the Civil War would result in him succeeded General Grant as Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army, a post in which he would go on to serve for almost a decade and a half. However, despite his military victories and successful military career, Sherman would also be remembered for a couple of memorable and oft-quoted remarks.

In describing war, Sherman wrote in a letter to Mayor James Calhoun of Atlanta that “war is cruelty, and you cannot refine it.” He would later revise this statement in a commencement address at the Michigan Military Academy in 1879 to the simple phrase “War is hell.”

Years later, after his retirement from the military, Sherman was frequently talked about as a prospective Republican candidate for President. During the 1870s and 80s, Republican Party movers and shakers often tried but failed to convince him to make a run for the White House. Sherman, however, made no secret of his disdain for politics, and repeatedly declined to run. In fact, he once quipped that he would rather spend four years in jail than in the White House. Sherman eventually ended speculation once and for all in 1884, when at the Republican National Convention he turned down the party’s invitation to become their candidate by saying, “I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected.” So I think it seems somewhat ironic that his memorial is located so close to the White House.

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[Click on the thumbnails above to view the full size photos]

Mathew Brady's Gravesite

Mathew Brady’s Gravesite

On this bike ride I stopped by the final resting place of Matthew Brady.  His gravesite is among those of the many historic and public figures buried in Historic Congressional Cemetery, located in the Capitol Hill neighborhood at 1801 E Street (MAP) in southeast D.C.

Mathew Brady was one of the most celebrated American photographers of the 19th century, and was well known for his portraits, particularly of public figures.  His first portrait studio in New York City was highly publicized, and in it Brady began to photograph as many famous people of his time as he could, which included Daniel Webster, James Fenimore Cooper, and Edgar Allan Poe.

A few years later he opened a second studio in D.C., where he continued his portraiture of public figures and prominent politicians, such as Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and 18 of the 19 American Presidents from John Quincy Adams to William McKinley.  The exception was William Henry Harrison, who died in office only a month after his inauguration, and three years before Brady started his photographic collection.  Among his presidential photographs, Brady famously photographed President Abraham Lincoln on several occasions, and it is his portraits of Lincoln that are on the five dollar bill and the Lincoln penny.

As famous as he is for his portrait photography, Brady is even more widely known for innovative use of photography to document the Civil War.  Initially, at the outbreak of the war, Brady’s photography business sold portrait images to transient soldiers.  Brady also marketed to parents, encouraging them to capture images of their soldier sons before going to war and possibly being killed.  He even ran an advertisement in The New York Daily Tribune that read, “You cannot tell how soon it may be too late.”  However, he was soon taken with the idea of documenting the war itself. Eventually it was this photography that earned him the moniker of “The Father of Photojournalism.”

Seeking to create a comprehensive photo-documentation of the war, Brady organized a group of photographers and staff at his own considerable expense to follow the troops as the world’s first embedded field photographers.  Brady even bought photographs and negatives from private photographers in order to make the collection as complete as possible.

Almost as skilled at self-promotion as he was at photography, Brady held an exhibition during the middle of the war in his New York studio entitled “The Dead of Antietam,” in which he graphically displayed the carnage of the war with photographs of the battlefield before the dead had been removed.  A New York Times article in October of 1862 captures the impact of the exhibition, stating, “Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our door-yards and along the streets, he has done something very like it.”

Following the war Brady continued to work in D.C., but the Civil War project ruined him financially.  He had spent over $100,000, much of it on credit, with the expectation that the U.S. government would want to buy his photographs when the war ended.  But when the government refused to do so, he was forced to declare bankruptcy and sell his New York City studio.  Unable to even pay the storage bill for his negatives, they were sold at public auction.  Ironically, they were bought by the U.S. War Department for $2,840.  Through lobbying by friends, Brady was eventually granted by Congress an additional payment of $25,000, but it was only a fraction of what he had spent on the project, and he remained financially destitute for the remainder of his life.

In addition to his financial problems, Brady also became depressed over the deterioration of his eyesight, which had begun years earlier.  He also became very lonely after the passing of his wife.  Then in 1895 Brady suffered two broken legs as a result of a traffic accident.  He never fully recovered, and died penniless and alone in the charity ward of Presbyterian Hospital in New York City on January 15, 1896.  Without enough money left to bury him, his funeral, and burial next to his wife at Congressional Cemetery, was financed by the New York 7th Regiment Veteran’s Association.

During my visit to the cemetery, as I took photographs of his grave with my cell phone, I couldn’t help but wonder what Brady would have thought of the current technology used in photography, and how widely accessible and relatively affordable that technology has made photography.  I also wondered what he would have thought of the number of photographs that people take these days. It’s estimated only a few million pictures were taken in the 80 years before the first commercial camera was introduced.  Photography then became more widespread when the Kodak Brownie was released in 1900, four years after Brady’s death.  Brady and his staff took approximately 10,000 photos during the Civil War, an enormous number at that time.  Today, we take more than 380 billion photos a year.  I imagine Brady would be absolutely astounded.

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The Daniel Webster Memorial

Daniel Webster was a U.S. statesman who had a lengthy career in Congress and the Federal government, one which would be absolutely impossible in today’s political climate.  He was elected and served as both a Congressman and Senator from three different political parties representing two different states.  He was also appointed Secretary of State by three separate Presidents from two different political parties.

He was originally elected in 1813 as a Federalist from New Hampshire to the Thirteenth, and then the Fourteenth Congresses.  After not running for election, he moved to Massachusetts to practice law.  Years later, he again ran for Congress and was elected to represent Massachusetts to the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Congresses.

He the ran as a member of the Adams Party, later referred to as Anti-Jacksonian, and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1827.  He was reelected to the Senate as a Whig in 1833 and 1839, and served until his resignation, effective in 1841.

Despite an unsuccessful run as the Whig candidate for President in 1836, as a leader of his party, he was one of the nation’s most prominent conservatives of his time.  He was appointed Secretary of State by President William Henry Harrison and again by President John Tyler.  Again elected as a Whig to the U.S. Senate from 1845 to 1850, he resigned to again be  appointed Secretary of State by President Millard Fillmore, a position in which he served until his death in 1852.

Among the many memorials in D.C. is one to honor Webster.  The statue is located near Webster’s former home at 1603 Massachusetts Avenue in northwest D.C., beside Scott Circle at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Rhode Island Avenue (MAP).

The Daniel Webster Memorial consists of a 12-foot bronze statue of Webster on an 18-foot granite pedestal in a sober classical style.  The statue of Webster was given to the United States government by Stilson Hutchins, founder of the Washington Post and, like Webster, a fellow native of New Hampshire.  An Act of Congress on July 1, 1898 authorized its erection on public grounds and appropriated $4,000 for a pedestal. The memorial was dedicated on January 19, 1900.  On October 12, 2007, the Daniel Webster Memorial was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.