Posts Tagged ‘Joseph Henry’

EOY2017 (130)

The Castle (front)

One of the most iconic and recognizable buildings in D.C. is the Smithsonian Institution Building.  Colloquially known as “The Castle,” it is located just off the National Mall at 1000 Jefferson Drive (MAP).  I’ve passed by it during bike rides literally thousands of times over the years.  And I’ve visited some of the many gardens surrounding it, such as The Enid A. Haupt Garden, The Kathrine Dulin Folger Rose Garden, and my personal favorite, The Mary Livingston Ripley Garden.  But I’ve never researched it or featured it in this blog.  But with it appearing to be so picturesque on this ride, I decided it was about time I did.

The Castle was designed by architect James Renwick, Jr., whose other works include St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City and the Smithsonian’s Renwick Gallery, also in D.C.  It was the first Smithsonian building.  There are now 20 Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries, 11 of which are at the National Mall.  The Castle was designed and built in the Norman Revival style, a 12th-century combination of late Romanesque and early Gothic motifs, which causes it to stand out among D.C.’s other architectural styles.  And it is constructed of Seneca red sandstone from the Seneca quarry in nearby Seneca, Maryland, which causes it to further stand out in contrast to the granite, marble and yellow sandstone from the other major buildings in D.C.  Construction began in 1847 and was completed in 1855.  It was designated added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1965.

The Castle initially served as a home and office for the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Joseph Henry.  And until 1881, it also housed all aspects of Smithsonian operations, including research and administrative offices; lecture halls; exhibit halls; a library and reading room; chemical laboratories; storage areas for specimens; and living quarters for the Secretary, his family, and visiting scientists.

Currently, The Castle houses the administrative offices of the Smithsonian. The main Smithsonian visitor center is also located in The Castle.  In the visitor center you can get a grasp of the scope and scale of the Smithsonian with an exhibit entitled “America’s Treasure Chest”, that displays items from collections across the Smithsonian.  There are also interactive displays and maps, and computers that can electronically answer most common questions.  There are volunteers and in-house experts as well, who can answer other questions and provide information about what to see and do based on what’s currently going on at all the Smithsonian museums.  Additionally, docent tours highlighting The Castle’s 19th-century architecture and history are available.

The visitor center is also home to a museum store featuring a myriad of souvenirs, and the Castle Café, where visitors can enjoy specialty sandwiches, soups, pastries, organic salads, antipasti, a coffee, espresso/cappuccino bar, teas, bottled beverages, beer, wine and, when in season, ice cream.

Finally, just inside the north entrance of The Castle is a crypt that houses the tomb of James Smithson.  Smithson was an English chemist and mineralogist who never married and had no children.  Therefore, when he wrote his will, he left his estate to his nephew, or his nephew’s family if his nephew died before him.  If his nephew were to die without heirs, however, Smithson’s will stipulated that his estate be used “to found in Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men”.  Smithson died in Genoa, Italy in June of 1829, at the age of 64.  Six years later, in 1835, his nephew died without heir, setting in motion the bequest to the United States.  In this way Smithson became the founding patron of the Smithsonian Institution despite having never visited the United States.

SmithsonianCastle01

The Castle (back)

LincolnHitchingPost01

The Lincoln Hitching Post

There is a small post protruding from the sidewalk in front of D.C.’s New York Avenue Presbyterian Church, and most people walking by are more likely to trip over it than know what it is.  In fact, if you didn’t stop to read the brass plaque attached to it you might not ever realize that the inconspicuous little post actually has historical significance.  Located at 1313 New York Avenue near its intersection with H Street in northwest D.C. (MAP), the post was used by President Abraham Lincoln to hitch his horses to while attending services at the church.

President and Mrs. Lincoln first visited the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church shortly after he took office in March of 1861.  The building was new when the Lincolns first visited, with the church having just formed as the result of a merger between the Second Presbyterian Church and the F Street Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church.  The Second Presbyterian Church owned a small building at the 14th Street site where the new church building was constructed.  The F Street Church met a few blocks away, and sold their building to The Willard Hotel where, coincidentally, the Lincolns had just recently run up a large tab, having stayed there prior to moving into The White House.

The Second Presbyterian Church included many prominent political and public figures, such as Presidents John Quincy Adams, James Buchanan and Andrew Jackson.  During the time Lincoln attended the New York Avenue church, members and regular attendees included: Edward Bates and Simon Cameron of Lincoln’s cabinet; Joseph Henry, the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; Senator Orville Browning of Illinois, and; famous Civil War photographer Mathew Brady.

Located just three blocks east of The White House, curious or admiring spectators would often gather and greet the first family as they arrived, whether it was by their small horse-drawn carriage or, occasionally, on foot.  Although the Lincolns did not join the church, the family attended services there regularly until the President’s death on April 15, 1865.  Almost a century and a half later, the hitching post still remains.

LincolnHitchingPost02     NYAPC01
[Click on the thumbnails above to view the full size photos]