Posts Tagged ‘Neil Armstrong’

Today is Flag Day, and in recognition of that designation I took some of the photos I’ve taken during my lunchtime bike rides, 76 of them, in fact, and set them to music to make the above slideshow.

In the United States, Flag Day is celebrated on June 14. It commemorates the adoption of the flag of the United States, which happened on June 14, 1777, by resolution of the Second Continental Congress.  But the first Flag Day was not celebrated for another 108 years. until in 1885 a 19-year-old school teacher in Fredonia, Wisconsin, named Bernard J. Cigrand placed a 38-inch star flag in a bottle on his desk to observe the “flag birthday,” and gave his students an assignment to write essays about the flag and its significance.  After that, Cigrand enthusiastically advocated for several years in numerous magazines and newspaper articles and public addresses the observance of June 14 as “Flag Birthday”, or “Flag Day”.  For his efforts, Cigrand generally is credited with being the “Father of Flag Day.”

It took another 31 years, until 1916, for President Woodrow Wilson to issue a proclamation that officially established June 14 as Flag Day.  Finally, in August 1946, National Flag Day was established by an Act of Congress.  Flag Day is still not an official Federal holiday, however.  Neither is it a state holiday outside of Pennsylvania and New York. Furthermore, New York’s official observance of Flag Day isn’t June 14, but rather the second Sunday in June.

Since its inception there have been 27 official versions what many fondly call the “Stars and Stripes” , starting with the first one in 1777 which displayed 13 stripes and 13 stars (for the 13 original colonies). When Kentucky and Vermont joined the union, the flag took on two more stars, so that from 1795 to 1818, 15 stripes and 15 stars graced the flag. It was this version of the flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to compose “The Star-Spangled Banner,” during the battle at Fort McHenry.  For a while, the U.S. added stripes and stars to the flag when welcoming new states. At one point, the flag has 15 stripes and 15 stars. But n 1818, as the country continued to add new states, lawmakers, anticipating a crowded field of stripes, decided to honor each new state with a star, and leave the stripes at 13. Today the flag has 50 stars for the 50 states, and the designated 13 stripes.

There are Federal regulations governing the handling and display of the flag, referred to as the U.S. Flag Code, including restrictions on using the flag’s likeness for advertising, or printing it on anything intended “for temporary use or discard,” like cocktail napkins or paper plates. Under the Flag Protection Act of 1989, there are also Federal laws that call for criminal penalties for certain forms of flag desecration, although the Supreme Court found this act to be unconstitutional under the First Amendment in 1990.

Not surprisingly, there are a lot of surprising and interesting facts surrounding the Stars and Stripes. And many of those facts are not found in history books. The following are some examples.

  • A 17-year old student named Robert G. Heft designed the flag as it currently appears today as part of a project for his history class.  He received a grade of B- for the project. He later submitted it to Congress for consideration, and in August of 1959 President Dwight D. Eisenhower chose Heft’s design over 1,500 other applicants. His teacher subsequently changed his grade to an A.
  • According to the U.S. Department of State, the names of the flag’s official colors are “old glory red,” “white,” and “old glory blue.” “White signifies purity and innocence, Red, hardiness and valor, and Blue, the color of the Chief, signifies vigilance, perseverance & justice.”
  • Old Glory was actually the nickname of a specific U.S. Flag, namely, the one owned by sea captain William Driver. He was previously given the flag by the women in his hometown of Salem, Massachusetts, but he only named it Old Glory upon seeing it flying on his ship’s mast in 1831. The name later went on to become synonymous with any American flag.
  • In July 1969, Neil Armstrong placed the first American flag on the moon as part of the Apollo 11 mission, the first manned landing. Five more Apollo moon landings—from missions 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17—resulted in five more flags being planted on the lunar surface. Despite the harsh temperatures and conditions of the moon’s atmosphere, five of the six flags that were planted during the Apollo missions are still standing. According to Buzz Aldrin, the one that fell was blown over by the exhaust from Apollo 11 during its liftoff from the moon’s surface.
  • Richard Williams, the animation director for the movie entitled “Who Framed Roger Rabbit,” said that he modeled the title character’s colors after the American flag. Roger Rabbit dons red overalls, has white fur, and wears a blue tie. “It looked like an American flag — subliminally speaking — so everybody liked it,” stated Williams.
  • Karen Burke of Walmart’s Corporate Communications revealed that Walmart stores sold around 115,000 American flags on September 11, 2001, as compared to 6,400 flags on the same date in 2000. In the year following 9/11 (September 11, 2001, through August 19, 2011), they sold 7.8 million American flags as compared to 2.5 million the year before.
  • During the opening sequence, at about 22 seconds in, of first-season episodes of “Gilligan’s Island,” the U.S. Flag can be seen flying at half-staff off in the distance. According to a 1994 audio book co-authored by Russell Johnson, who played the Professor, this is because the show’s pilot episode finished filming on November 22, 1963 — the same day President Kennedy was assassinated.
  • Lastly and most assuredly bigly, our current President, Donald Trump, was born on Flag Day in 1946.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters

On this daily bike ride I went to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) headquarters building. Although more frequently associated with the Kennedy Space Center in Florida or Edwards Air Force Base in California, their headquarters is actually located in downtown D.C., at 300 E Street (MAP) in Southwest D.C.

The destination for this bike ride was chosen in recognition of today’s anniversary of the agency becoming operational, which occurred on this day in 1958 after President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed and Congress passed legislation disestablishing its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and establishing NASA as the Federal agency responsible for coordinating America’s civilian activities in space. NASA has since sponsored space expeditions, both human and mechanical, that have yielded vital information about the solar system and universe. It has also launched numerous earth-orbiting satellites that have been instrumental in everything from weather forecasting to navigation to global communications.

NASA was created in response to the Soviet Union’s launch of its first satellite, which caught Americans by surprise and sparked fears that the Soviets might also be capable of sending missiles with nuclear weapons from Europe to America. The U.S. prided itself on being at the forefront of technology, and, embarrassed, immediately began developing a response, signaling the start of the U.S.-Soviet space race.

Just a few years later, in May 1961, President John F. Kennedy declared that America should put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. On July 20, 1969, NASA’s Apollo 11 mission achieved that goal and made history when astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person to set foot on the moon, saying “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” Interestingly, Armstrong flubbed the scripted line, which was supposed to have included the article “a” before the word “man.” Fortunately, however, the tremendous scientific and cultural importance of Apollo 11’s achievements dwarfed Armstrong’s verbal slip-up. And despite his failure to deliver his line as planned, it remains one of the world’s most famous sentences.

NASA has continued to make great advances in space exploration since that first moonwalk. They include Skylab, the U.S.’s first and only independently built space station. There was also the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project of the early 1970’s, which was a joint effort between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, and declared the intent for all future international manned spacecraft to be capable of docking with each other. This set the stage and eventually led to NASA playing a major part in the construction of the International Space Station. Another one of the agency’s successes was the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.

The agency has also suffered tragic setbacks, however. The Space Shuttle Program became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Planned as frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicles, four space shuttles were built. However, disasters killed the crews of the Challenger space shuttle in 1986, and the Columbia space shuttle in 2003.

When NASA was founded, Congress said that the money being provided that goes up in the form of space exploration has to come back down in some practical and tangible forms. And it has done that and more. The miniaturization of electronics making cell phones and iPods possible was primarily developed during the race to get to the moon. The first integrated circuit — the forefather of the modern microchip making modern computers possible — was built by Texas Instruments but funded by the Apollo program. Cordless power tools are possible because of collaboration between NASA and Black and Decker in search of a stronger, longer-lasting battery. Even the “Jaws of Life” device that saves people from twisted metal wreckage in auto accidents was developed as part of the space program. In fact, everything from the padding in football helmets to scratch-proof lenses in eyeglasses, as well as composite golf clubs, ultraviolet sunglasses, the computer mouse, and baby formula were all developed in collaboration with NASA. For NASA to take credit for it all is not entirely accurate, but to say that it’s all part of a larger space economy is quite accurate.

Our space exploration program goes far beyond seeking a return on a financial investment though. Mankind has always been lured by a fascination with space, and the creation of NASA and our exploration of space are rooted in that fascination. But why is space so fascinating? I agree with Eric Hoffer, an American moral and social philosopher, who once said, “Our passionate preoccupation with the sky, the stars, and a God somewhere in outer space is a homing impulse. We are drawn back to where we came from.”

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