Posts Tagged ‘Othello’

The Paul Robeson Mural

As I was riding along the U Street corridor during this bike ride, I looked down an alley next to the Hung Tao Choy Mei Leadership Institute, located at 1351 U Street (MAP), and caught a glimpse of a mural that necessitated turning around and going back to get a closer look.  The mural is entitled “Living Time Line: Paul Robeson,” and is the work of lead muralists Cory L. Stowers and Andrew Katz, their artist conclave known as ART BLOC (comprised of Eric B. Ricks, Maria Miller, Serena Z, Ernesto Zelaya, Jaa), and made possible with the permission of the building owner, and funding from the D.C. Commission on the Arts and Humanities.

The mural depicts the life of Paul Robeson, who became famous as an American bass baritone concert artist and a stage and film actor known for productions like “The Emperor Jones” and “Othello.”  But in addition to his cultural accomplishments, he was also equally famous for his political activism.  An example of a 20th-century Renaissance man, his talents made him revered during his time, but his radical political beliefs and activism all but erased him from popular history.

Paul Leroy Robeson was born on April 9, 1898, in Princeton, New Jersey, the youngest of five children born to Maria Louisa Bustill, who came from an abolitionist Quaker family, and William Drew Robeson, an escaped slave who became a Presbyterian minister.  After his mother, who was nearly blind, died in a fire when he was only six years old, his father moved the family, eventually landing in Somerville, New Jersey, where he grew up.  After high school, Robeson won a four-year academic scholarship to Rutgers University, where he won 15 varsity letters in football, baseball, basketball, and track, before graduating as the valedictorian of the class of 1919.  He then went on to from Columbia University School of Law.  While attending law school he sang and acted in off-campus productions, and also played football for the National Football League.  It was also while at Columbia Law School that he met and married his wife, Eslanda Cordoza Goode.  He graduated from Columbia with an LL.B. in 1923.

After completing his education Robeson took a job with a law firm.  But he resigned when a white secretary refused to take dictation from him.  It was at this pivotal time that he left the practice of law, and decided to use his artistic talents in theater and music to promote African and African-American history and culture.  This decision would define the rest of his life.

After leaving the practice of law, Robeson began his career as an actor and a singer.  It was a career that would take him around the world during the 1930’s.  In London, he earned international acclaim for his lead acting role in “Othello,” for which he won the Donaldson Award for Best Acting Performance, and performed in Eugene O’Neill’s plays, “Emperor Jones” and “All God’s Chillun Got Wings.”  And he used his deep baritone voice to sing black spirituals, to share the cultures of other countries, and to benefit the labor and social movements of his time.  He sang for peace and justice in 25 languages throughout the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union, and Africa, and became known as a citizen of the world, equally comfortable with the people of Moscow, Nairobi, Helsinki and Harlem.

But it was during these travels that he learned racism was not as virulent in Europe as it was back in the United States.  Back at home, it was difficult to find restaurants that would serve him, theaters in New York would only seat blacks in the upper balconies, and his performances were often surrounded with threats or outright harassment.  It was a lesson that profoundly affected him and never left him.

During the 1940’s, Robeson continued to perform and to speak out against racism.  He was a champion of working people and organized labor. He spoke and performed at strikes and rallies, conferences, and labor festivals worldwide.  And as a passionate believer in international cooperation, Robeson protested the growing Cold War and worked tirelessly for friendship and respect between the United States and the Soviet Union.  It was during this time, when dissent was scarcely tolerated in the U.S., that Robeson openly questioned why African Americans should fight in the army of a government that tolerated racism.  Because of his outspokenness in supporting civil rights causes and pro-Soviet policies, he was investigated by the FBI, and later accused by the House Un-American Activities Committee of being a communist.  The accusation caused his income to plummet and nearly ended his career.  The attempt to silence him, however, did not succeed.

In 1950, the U.S. revoked Robeson’s passport when he would not recant his public activism and advocacy, leading to an eight-year battle to have it reinstated so he could travel again.  His passport was eventually restored as a result of the 1958 United States Supreme Court decision, Kent v. Dulles.  During those intervening years, Robeson moved to Harlem and published a periodical entitled “Freedom,” which was critical of United States policies.  He also studied Chinese, met with Albert Einstein to discuss the prospects for world peace, published his autobiography entitled “Here I Stand,” and sang at Carnegie Hall.  Robeson made his last concert tour to New Zealand and Australia in 1960.  In ill health, he retired from public life in 1963.  Robeson died on January 23, 1976, at age 77, in Philadelphia.

The Robeson mural concept stems from the Hung Tao Choy Mei Leadership Institute’s efforts to introduce Paul Robeson to the current generation and re-introduce him to previous generations through the Paul Robeson “Here I Stand” Award galas at the nearby Lincoln Theatre.  The two-story mural features two large portraits of Robeson at opposite ends of the building’s dark grey wall, which bookend smaller depictions of him at different stages of his life.  One of many quotes attributed to Robeson, “I make no distinction between my work as an artist and my life as a human being,” is also prominently featured in the mural.

Much like the mural, this blog post is just a short introduction to the fascinating career, activism and life of Paul Robeson.  I suggest you go down and see the mural it for yourself, if you haven’t already.  And then for a more thorough understanding of the vastness of his thoughts and experiences, read Robeson’s autobiography, entitled “Here I Stand.”


[Click on the photos to view the full-size versions]

Other Paul Robeson quotes:

  • “We must join with the tens of millions all over the world who see in peace our most sacred responsibility.”
  • “As an artist I come to sing, but as a citizen, I will always speak for peace, and no one can silence me in this.”
  • “I do not hesitate one second to state clearly and unmistakably: I belong to the American resistance movement which fights against American imperialism, just as the resistance movement fought against Hitler.”
  • “Yes, peace can and must be won, to save the world from the terrible destruction of World War III.”
  • “Four hundred million in India, and millions everywhere, have told you, precisely, that the colored people are not going to die for anybody: they are going to die for their independence.”
  • “In Russia I felt for the first time like a full human being. No color prejudice like in Mississippi, no color prejudice like in Washington. It was the first time I felt like a human being.”


The Folger Shakespeare Library

The Folger Shakespeare Library

Today is the 450th anniversary of William Shakespeare’s birth, or at least the day that is traditionally observed as his birthday.  It is also the 398th anniversary of the day he died in 1616, at the age of exactly 52.   An English poet and playwright, he is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s pre-eminent dramatist.  But I also think it would be fair to say that he has a reputation as the bane of every schoolchild’s life, and that the average man on the street these days would not understand the language of Shakespeare’s writings.

While it can be difficult at times to decipher the flowery poetry and metaphors, it can be equally difficult to understand his vast vocabulary.  Many of the words he used are now obsolete and not understood by people in the modern era.  But many of the other words he used we understand, but were not initially understood by the people of his time.  This is because when he got stuck trying to think of a word he would often just make up one up.  It’s kind of like what rappers do today, except many of the words and phrases Shakespeare made up got embedded into our culture and have formed the cornerstone of our discourse, rather than being obnoxious and forgotten as soon as the song’s popularity fades.

Shakespeare invented more words and phrases than many people even know.  By some estimations, there are at least 2,000 different words and phrases that don’t appear anywhere prior to the “Bard of Avon” putting them on paper.   The following is a selection of just a few of the now popular words and phrases Shakespeare invented (and his plays and writings in which they are featured):

a foregone conclusion (Othello)
a pound of flesh (The Merchant of Venice)
a sorry sight (Macbeth)
addiction (Othello)
advertising (Measure for Measure)
all that glitters isn’t gold (The Merchant of Venice)
all the world’s a stage (As You Like It)
all’s well that ends well (All’s Well That Ends Well)
arch-villain (Timon of Athens)
arouse (King Henry VI, Part II)
as good luck would have it (The Merry Wives of Windsor)
as pure as the driven snow (Macbeth)
assassination (Macbeth)
bated breath (The Merchant of Venice)
beached (A Midsummer Night’s Dream)
bedazzled (The Taming of the Shrew)
bedroom (A Midsummer Night’s Dream)
belongings (Timon of Athens)
bet (King Henry IV, Part II)
beware the Ides of March (Julius Caesar)
break the ice (The Taming of the Shrew)
brevity is the soul of wit (Hamlet)
budge an inch (The Taming of the Shrew)
bump (Romeo and Juliet)
buzzer (Hamlet)
champion (Macbeth)
clothes make the man (Hamlet)
cold-blooded (King John)
critic (Love’s Labour’s Lost)
cruel to be kind (Hamlet)
dawn (Henry V)
dishearten (Henry V, Part 2)
double double toil and trouble (Macbeth)
drugged (Macbeth)
eaten me out of house and home (Henry IV)
elbow (King Lear)
epileptic (King Lear)
eventful (As You Like It)
excitement (Hamlet)
exposure (Troilus and Cressida)
eyeball (The Tempest)
fair play (King John)
fashionable (Troilus and Cressida)
flesh and blood (Hamlet)
forever and a day (As You Like It)
fortune’s fool (Romeo and Juliet)
frugal (The Merry Wives of Windsor)
full circle (King Lear)
generous (Love’s Labours Lost)
gloomy (King Henry VI, Part I)
good riddance (Troilus and Cressida)
gossip (The Comedy of Errors)
green-eyed monster (Othello)
high time (A Comedy of Errors)
hint (Othello)
hob nob (Twelfth Night)
in a pickle (The Tempest)
in my heart of hearts (Hamlet)
in my mind’s eye (Hamlet)
in the twinkling of an eye (The Merchant of Venice)
inaudible (All’s Well That Ends Well)
it’s Greek to me (Julius Caesar)
knock, knock! Who’s there? (Macbeth)
laugh oneself into stitches (Twelfth Night)
laughable (The Merchant of Venice)
laughing stock (The Merry Wives of Windsor)
lie low (Much Ado About Nothing)
lonely (Coriolanus)
love is blind (The Merchant of Venice)
luggage (King Henry IV, Part I)
madcap (Love’s Labour’s Lost)
majestic (Julius Caesar)
manager (A Midsummer Night’s Dream)
masters of their fates (Julius Caesar)
measure for Measure (Timon of Athens)
method in the madness (Hamlet)
milk of human kindness (Macbeth)
mimic (A Midsummer Night’s Dream)
moonbeam (A Midsummer Night’s Dream)
mountaineer (Cymbeline)
multitudinous (Macbeth)
mum’s the word (Henry VI, Part 2)
negotiate (Much Ado About Nothing)
neither here nor there (Othello)
new-fangled (Love’s Labour’s Lost)
obscene (Love’s Labour’s Lost)
one fell swoop (Macbeth)
onscene (Othello)
pageantry (Timon of Athens)
parting is such sweet sorrow (Romeo and Juliet)
pomp and circumstance (Othello)
premeditated (King Henry VI, Part I)
puking (As You Like It)
rant (Hamlet)
remorseless (King Henry VI, Part II)
scuffle (Antony and Cleopatra)
short shrift (Richard III)
skim milk (King Henry IV, Part I)
something wicked this way comes (Macbeth)
star-crossed lovers (Romeo and Juliet)
strange bedfellows (The Tempest)
such stuff as dreams are made on (The Tempest)
swagger (Henry V, Part 2)
the be-all and the end-all (Macbeth)
the course of true love never did run smooth (A Midsummer Night’s Dream)
the dogs of war (Julius Caesar)
the lady doth protest too much (Hamlet)
the short and the long of it (The Merry Wives of Windsor)
The winter of our discontent (Richard III)
The world’s my oyster (The Merry Wives of Windsor)
to be or not to be (Hamlet)
to thine own self be true (Hamlet)
too much of a good thing (As You Like It)
torture (King Henry VI, Part II)
uncomfortable (Romeo and Juliet)
undress (The Taming of the Shrew)
vanish into thin air (Othello)
varied (Titus Andronicus)
we have seen better days (As You Like It)
wear one’s heart on one’s sleeve (Othello)
what light through yonder window breaks? (Romeo and Juliet)
what the dickens (The Merry Wives of Windsor)
what’s done is done (Macbeth)
wild-goose chase (Romeo and Juliet)
Worthless (King Henry VI, Part III)
zany (Othello)

In recognition of the anniversary of Shakespeare’s birth and death, as well as his numerous contributions to the English language, on a recent bike ride I went to the Folger Shakespeare Library, located in southeast D.C. at 201 East Capitol Street on Capitol Hill (MAP).  The Library is a world-renowned research center and is home to the world’s largest and finest collection of Shakespeare materials and to major collections of other rare Renaissance books, manuscripts, and works of art.  It serves a wide audience of researchers, visitors, teachers, students, families, and theater- and concert-goers.

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