Posts Tagged ‘President William Howard Taft’

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Statue of Brigadier General Thaddeus Kościuszko

On this ride I went to Lafayette Square Park, located just north of the White House between Pennsylvania Avenue and H Street, and between 15th and 17th Streets (MAP).  I went there to see one of the four statues which anchor the four corners of the park.  Today, I went to see the statue of Brigadier General Thaddeus Kościuszko, located at the northeast corner of the park.  The other three statues, which all outrank Kosciuszko, are of Major General Marquis Gilbert de Lafayette, Major General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, and Major General Comte Jean de Rochambeau.

The four corner statues located in Lafayette Square honor foreign volunteers who fought for the new nation during the American Revolutionary War.  As such, they are four of a total of fourteen statues known collectively as the “American Revolution Statuary”, which are scattered throughout D.C., mainly in squares and traffic circles, and are listed as a group on the National Register of Historic Places.

The Kościuszko statue was designed by a Polish sculptor named Antoni Popiel as part of a competition in 1907 to design a monument for the park.  Popiel’s design placed second in the competition.  For unknown reasons, however, President Theodore Roosevelt selected Popiel’s design for implementation.  It is unknown what happened with the design of the contest’s winner.  Kościuszko design was then erected in 1910, and dedicated by President William Howard Taft that same year.

The Kościuszko statue honors the Polish army officer, military engineer and statesman who gained fame both for his role in the American Revolution, and his leadership of a national insurrection in his homeland.

Born to a family of noble origin sometime in February of 1746,  Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kościuszko began his rise to prominenace when he attracted the attention of King Stanisław II Augustus Poniatowski while working as an instructor at a military academy in Warsaw.  The king was so impressed, in fact, that he sent him to Paris for further study.  Upon his return to Poland, he taught the daughters of General Józef Sosnowski.  During this time he fell in love one of the daughters, Ludwika, and rather than ask her father for his daughter’s hand in marriage, he tried unsuccessfully to elope with her.  Facing the wrath of her father, Kościuszko fled to France, and in 1776 he came to America, where he joined the colonial forces in their fight for independence.  At the end of the war he was given U.S. citizenship.

In 1784, however, Kościuszko returned to Poland.  But because of his association with the Czartoryski family, then in opposition to the king, he could not secure an appointment in the Polish army.  So for the next five years he lived in poverty on a small country estate.

With the advent of reforms in Poland in 1789, Kościuszko returned to military service. Under the protection of his former love, Ludwika, now the wife of Prince Lubomirski, and with the support of local nobility, he was granted the rank of general major.  Then in March of 1794, Kościuszko organized an uprising against Russia which, under the rule of Catherine the Great, had invaded Poland in an attempt to end Polish internal reforms designed to liberate the nation from Russian influence.  While serving as commander-in-chief of the uprising, Russian forces captured him at the Battle of Maciejowice in October 1794, which led to the defeat of the Kościuszko Uprising.

In 1796, following the death of Catherine the Great, Kościuszko was pardoned by her successor, Tsar Paul I, and he emigrated back to the United States.  It was then that be became a close friend of Thomas Jefferson, with whom he shared many ideals of human rights.

After receiving news of fresh possibilities to promote Poland’s cause in France, Kościuszko  secretly left the United States on May 5, 1798.  But his return to France was a disappointment when he could not gain Napolean’s support for Poland’s independence, nor later on, that of Alexander I of Russia.  Hence, Kościuszko retired from public life, and for the rest of his life remained in exile from Poland, living first in France and later in Switzerland.  It was not until after his death in 1817 that Kościuszko was finally able to return to his native Poland, when his remains were carried to Kraków and buried among the kings’ tombs in the cathedral.

Kościuszko was not only a supporter of American independence and a Polish national hero, but also a believer in social equality.  Kościuszko wrote a will in 1798 dedicating his assets to the freedom and education of American slaves.

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Note:  If you want to learn even more about Thaddeus Kościuszko, I would recommend a visit to the foundation named after him.  Founded in 1925, on the eve of the 150th anniversary of his enlistment in the American revolutionary cause, The Kosciuszko Foundation is a national not-for-profit, nonpartisan, and nonsectarian organization dedicated to promoting educational and cultural exchanges between the United States and Poland, and to increase American understanding of Polish culture and history.  It is located about ten blocks from the statue, at 2025 O Street (MAP), in northwest D.C.’s DuPont Circle neighborhood, just a block down the street from Sonny Bono Memorial Park.

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The Butt-Millet Memorial Fountain

On this lunchtime bike ride I rode over to President’s Park, which encompasses the White House, a visitor center, Lafayette Square, and The Ellipse. There are a number of monuments and memorials located throughout the park, and on this ride I specifically went there to see the Butt-Millet Memorial Fountain, which is located just south and within sight of the White House, and about thirty yards northwest of The Zero Milestone, near the western junction of E street and Ellipse Road (MAP).

The fountain is a memorial to Archibald Willingham DeGraffenreid Clarendon Butt and Francis Davis Millet, believed to be the only officials of the United States government who perished, along with more than 1,500 others, when the “unsinkable” RMS Titanic hit an iceberg during its maiden voyage and sunk on the night of April 14th through to the morning of April 15th in 1912.

On May 16, 1912, just one month after the Titanic went down, Senator Augustus Octavius Bacon of Georgia submitted a resolution authorizing the constructing of a private memorial to Butt and Millet on federally owned land somewhere in D.C..  Bacon argued that Butt and Millet were public servants who deserved to be memorialized separately from the rest of the dead.  Initial press reports indicated that President William Howard Taft planned an elaborate dedication ceremony for the memorial.  But Taft was no longer president by late 1913, having lost the presidential election to Woodrow Wilson.  So the Butt-Millet Memorial Fountain was dedicated without ceremony on October 25, 1913.

The Fountain is 12 feet high, with an octagonal grey granite base which supports an 8 feet wide bowl made of golden brown Tennessee marble. Rising up from the bowl is a panel with two relief figures. The one on the southern side of the panel depicts a man in armor and helmet who is holding a shield, representing military valor and memorializing Butt. The figure on the north side of the panel depicts a woman with paint brush and palette, represents the fine arts and memorializes Millet.

Butt, known as “Archie” to his friends, was a United States Army officer. He served in the Quartermaster Corps during the Spanish-American War, where he gained notice for his work in logistics and animal husbandry.   Later, after brief postings in D.C and Cuba, he was appointed as a military aide to President Theodore Roosevelt. At the time of his death he was serving as a military aide to President Taft. Known as one of the most eligible bachelors in D.C., Butt never married and mystery surrounded his personal life as well as his death. There were many sensational accounts reported of Butt’s last moments aboard the Titanic.  But none of them has ever been verified. Although his body was never found, a cenotaph in the shape of a Celtic cross memorializes him in Arlington National Cemetery.

Millet was an accomplished painter, sculptor, and writer, and at the time of his death served as vice chairman of the Commission of Fine Arts, a committee with approval authority for the “design and aesthetics” of construction within the national capitol city. Some mystery also surrounded Millet’s personal life. Despite being married and a father of three, he is also thought to have had several same-sex relationships during his life.   Millet’s body was recovered after the sinking and was buried in Bridgewater, Massachusetts.

Despite the mystery in their personal lives, both men were well liked in local social circles and among the D.C. elite. In Butt’s eulogy in The Washington Times, it stated that, “the two men had a sympathy of mind which was most unusual.” Noting that Butt was “mourned by Washingtonians of all walks of life,” the article claimed, “None could help admiring either man.” Some historians have also asserted that Butt and Millet were involved in a romantic relationship. They were close friends and housemates, often attending social gatherings and parties together. And they were aboard the Titanic because they were returning to the United States after vacationing together in Europe.  Quite possible an early example of “Don’t ask, don’t tell,” they were together in both life and death.

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Christopher Columbus Memorial Fountain

It has rained, and occasionally stormed, every day for the past couple of weeks here in D.C.  And as indicated by the ominous-looking skies in the background of the photos from this bike ride, it rained again today. But I haven’t let that keep me from my lunchtime bike rides. And on this ride, I went to see the Christopher Columbus Memorial Fountain, located in the middle of Columbus Plaza (MAP), in front of Union Station in northeast D.C.’s NoMa neighborhood.

The fountain, also sometimes referred to as the Columbus Monument, is a memorial to Christopher Columbus, the Italian explorer, navigator, and first colonizer of the Western Hemisphere or “New World.”  It was designed by American sculptor Lorado Zadoc Taft, a distant relative of President William Howard Taft, in collaboration with architect Daniel Burnham. It is a semicircular double-basin fountain with a shaft in the center. The front of the shaft bears a full-length portrait of Christopher Columbus staring south toward the U.S. Capitol Building with his arms crossed in front of him. He is flanked on his right side by an American Indian, who is facing west, representing the “New World.” On Columbus’ left side is an elderly man facing east, representing the “Old World.”  In front of the shaft is a ship prow that features a winged figurehead leading the way.  That represents “discovery.”  And above Columbus is a globe representing the Western hemisphere, with four eagles, one on each corner connected by garland.  Two lions, placed away from the base, guard the left and right sides of the fountain.

In a day the New York Times referred to as “second only to the inauguration of a President,” the fountain was publicly unveiled in a dedication ceremony and parade on June 8, 1912. After the Knights of Columbus’ successful lobbying for the sculpture which had begun a half a dozen years earlier, the festivities at the dedication ceremony included approximately 50,000 members of the organization. The ceremony was presided over by then Secretary of State Philander Knox, with invocation given by Father Thomas Shahan, the Rector of The Catholic University of America.  Other notable participants included Italian Ambassador Cusania Confalonieri, Apostolic Delegate to United States Archbishop Giovanni Vincenzo Cardinal Bonzano and other Catholic Church notables, as well as President Taft.  It also included 15,000 troops, 2,000 motor cars, a 21 gun salute, and elaborate horse-drawn floats depicting noteworthy incidents in Columbus’ life. And it was all viewed by around 150,000 spectators.

During his formal address at the dedication ceremony, President Taft said, “It is most difficult for us by any effort of the imagination to take in the problem which Columbus solved.” And as I visited the fountain today, I contemplated that statement. In this age of technology-assisted navigation and easy travel, it is almost impossible to fully comprehend the both the difficult conditions and the uncertainty of the outcome of Columbus’ journeys. Not only did he not have GPS or satellite imagery, Columbus didn’t even have a map.  That’s because no maps existed at that time of where he was going.  All he had was a compass and an astrolabe.  His boat actually started to fall apart on his first voyage.  They nearly ran out of food and water, facing starvation and dehydration.  In fact, Columbus wrote in his diary in 1492, “We ate biscuit which was a powder swarming with worms. It smelt of rats. … We ate sawdust from the boards.”   They also faced the threat of many diseases, and many people died on the ship.  They encountered severe storms and weather challenges as well.  And with all these problems, his crew not only wanted to turn back, they wanted to kill him.  So next time you’re headed through Union Station or Reagan National Airport on your way somewhere, stop and think about how good you’ve got it.

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The James Cardinal Gibbons Memorial

The James Cardinal Gibbons Memorial

The James Cardinal Gibbons Memorial Statue is a public artwork, and is located in front of the Shrine of the Sacred Heart Roman Catholic parish, in a median at the confluence of 16th Street, Park Road and Sacred Heart Way (MAP), in northwest D.C.’s Columbia Heights neighborhood.

The statue depicts a bronze figure of James Gibbons seated, wearing cardinals robes, with his right hand in a raised position as if giving a blessing.  In his left hand he is holding a cross that hangs from his neck.  The base, which is made of granite, has a relief of a shield topped with an ecclesiastical hat. The shield has the coat of arms of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Washington and the Cardinal’s personal coat of arms.  Around the shield are rows of tassels that represent the ranks of clergy. The statue was authorized by Congress and President Calvin Coolidge on April 23, 1928, at no expense to the United States. The piece was commissioned by the Knights of Columbus, and created by Italian sculptor Leo Lentelli.  It was unveiled in August of 1932, a date chosen to coincide with the Knights of Columbus’ 50th anniversary.  The statue was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2007.

Cardinal James Gibbons was born in 1834 in Baltimore, Maryland, to Irish immigrant parents.  After his father fell ill with tuberculosis, he moved the family back to Ireland, where he believed the air would benefit him.  After his father died in 1847, his mother moved 19-year old James and the rest of the family back to the United States in 1853, settling in New Orleans, Louisiana.

After deciding to pursue the priesthood, Gibbons entered St. Charles College in Ellicott City, Maryland.  After graduating from St. Charles, he entered St. Mary’s Seminary in Baltimore.  On June 30, 1861, Gibbons was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Francis Kenrick of Baltimore, and served during the Civil War as a volunteer chaplain at Fort McHenry.  In 1868, at the age of 34, he became one of the youngest Catholic bishops in the world, and was known by the nickname “the boy bishop.”  From 1869 to 1870, Gibbons attended the First Vatican Council in Rome, and ultimately was the last of its participants to die.  In 1877, the Baltimore-born Gibbons became the head of the oldest archdiocese in the United States. Also in 1887, he helped found The Catholic University of America in D.C., and served as its first chancellor.  Nine years later, in 1886, Pope Leo XIII named him as the second-ever U.S. cardinal.

A man who was often viewed as the face of the Catholic Church in America, Gibbons was also an advocate of the labor movement of those days, and played a key role in obtaining permission from the Pope for Catholics to join labor unions.  And in his dealings with the Vatican, he and other “Americanizers” championed the separation of church and state.

An ardent proponent of American civic institutions, Gibbons called the U.S. Constitution the finest instrument of government ever created.   He was also a frequent visitor to the White House.  Gibbons knew every president from Andrew Johnson to Warren Harding, and served as an advisor to many of them.  President William Howard Taft honored him for his humanitarian work at the 1911 golden jubilee celebration of his ordination. And in 1917, President Theodore Roosevelt hailed him as “the most venerated, respected and useful citizen in America.”

The Robert A. Taft Memorial and Carillon

The Robert A. Taft Memorial and Carillon

Robert Alphonso Taft was a conservative American politician and statesman, and a member of one of America’s most prominent political families of his time. He served as a U.S. Senator from the state of Ohio from 1939 until his death in 1953. At the time of his death Taft was the Senate Majority Leader. He also had presidential aspirations, seeking out the Republican Party’s presidential nomination in 1940, 1948, and 1952, but remained unsuccessful, unlike his father, William Howard Taft, who was the 27th President of the U.S.

One of the most well-known conservatives of his time, Taft earned the nickname of “Mr. Republican” given to him by his peers. Taft is often known remembered by historians as one of the most powerful Senators of the twentieth century, and the U.S. Senate’s primary opponent of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “New Deal” domestic policies. Taft is also known as a major advocate of a foreign policy of non-interventionism, and for successfully leading the conservative coalition’s effort to curb the expanding power of labor unions in America after Roosevelt’s death.

Just a few years after his death, a committee led by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Taft as one of five of the greatest U.S. Senators in history. Kennedy would also go on to profile him in his book “Profiles in Courage,” describing him as a politician who was able to demonstrate personal strength and conscientious action in the pursuit of what he felt was the right path, in spite of the fact that his views were sometimes contrary to those of the majority of Americans.

On this bike ride, I went to visit the D.C. memorial to honor the man known as “Mr. Republican,” the Robert A. Taft Memorial and Carillon. Located north of the Capitol on Constitution Avenue between New Jersey Avenue and First Street (MAP) in northwest D.C.’s Capitol Hill neighborhood, the memorial consists of a marble tower encircled by jets of water that flow into a basin that rings the base, and a 10-foot bronze statue of Senator Taft. The shaft of the tower measures 100 feet high, 11 feet deep, and 32 feet wide, and was designed by architect Douglas W. Orr. The statue was sculpted by Wheeler Williams.

An inscription on the memorial above the statue reads, “This Memorial to Robert A. Taft, presented by the people to the Congress of the United States, stands as a tribute to the honesty, indomitable courage, and high principles of free government symbolized by his life.” An additional engraving on the side of the memorial reads, “If we wish to make democracy permanent in this country, let us abide by the fundamental principles laid down in the Constitution. Let us see that the state is the servant of its people, and that the people are not the servants of the state.”

The carillon contains twenty-seven bells in the upper part of the tower, which were cast in the Paccard Foundry in France and are considered among the finest quality in the world. The largest of the bells, called the bourdon bell, weighs 7 tons. The bells are well matched and produce rich, resonant tones which can be heard throughout Capitol Hill and much of downtown D.C. The large central bell rings out on the hour, while the smaller fixed bells chime on the quarter-hour. By resolution of Congress, the carillon bells together play “The Star-Spangled Banner” at 2 p.m. on the Fourth of July.

The Robert A. Taft Memorial and Carillon is an unusual memorial, with a prominent location and grand scale that exceeds that for many Presidential memorials in D.C. It is truly a testament to the popularity of and respect for the man known during his political career as Mr. Republican.

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The Lincoln Memorial

The Lincoln Memorial

Even if you have never been able to visit the Lincoln Memorial in person, you have most likely seen it many times. An image of the monument to the 16th President is on United States currency, appearing on both the back of the five dollar bill and the reverse side of all pennies minted prior to 2009.  With five dollars and one cent in my pocket on this ride, I rode to the Lincoln Memorial, located at the west end of the National Mall (MAP), across from The Washington Monument.

The Lincoln Memorial was designed by architect Henry Bacon after ancient Greek temples, and stands 190 feet long, is 119 feet wide and almost 100 feet high, with a cement foundation that is 60 feet deep. It is surrounded by 36 enormous columns, one for each of the states in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death.  By the time the monument was completed, the Union had increased by 12 more states, so the names of all 48 states were carved on the outside of the walls of the memorial. Following the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states, a plaque with the names of these new states was added.  The statue of the President, which was sculpted by Daniel Chester French, is 19 feet high and weighs 175 tons. The original plan was for the statue to be only ten feet high, but this was changed so that the figure of Lincoln would not be dwarfed by the size of the chamber in which it sits.  The north and south side chambers contain inscriptions of two well-known speeches by President Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address and his second presidential inauguration address in 1865, the latter of which contains a fairly well-known mistake.

Roughly two years following Lincoln’s death in 1865, the U.S. Congress appointed the Lincoln Monument Association to build a memorial to commemorate the assassinated President.  However, the site for the memorial was not chosen until 1901.  Another decade later, President William Howard Taft signed a bill to provide funding for the memorial, and construction began the following month, on February 12th, to commemorate Lincoln’s 102nd birthday.  The Presidential memorial was finally completed and opened to the public in 1922.  On May 30, 1922, Former President and then Supreme Court Chief Justice William Howard Taft and Robert Todd Lincoln, the only surviving child of Lincoln’s four children, lead the monument’s dedication ceremony.

Over the years, the Lincoln Memorial has been the site of a number of famous events, including protests, concerts and speeches.  Perhaps the most famous of which occurred on August 28, 1963.  The Memorial’s grounds were the site of the “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom,” which proved to be a high point of the American Civil Rights Movement.  It is estimated that over a quarter of a million people participated in the event.  It was then that Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his historic “I Have a Dream” speech from the steps of the memorial.  The location where King delivered the speech is commemorated with an inscription carved into the steps.

Today, the Lincoln Memorial receives almost four million visitors per year.  Admission is free, and it is open to the public 24 hours a day, 7 days a week – except Christmas Day.  The memorial is administered by the National Park Service, and provides Park Service rangers on site from 9:30 am until 11:30 pm each day it is open to address questions about the Memorial.

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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

There is a statue memorializing Henry Wordsworth Longfellow located in a triangular park at the confluence of Connecticut Avenue and 18th and M Streets (MAP), just south of DuPont Circle, in northwest D.C. The life-sized bronze statue by William Couper and Thomas Ball is mounted on a base of Swedish granite, and depicts a seated Longfellow, dressed in his academic robe, resting his chin on his left hand with his arm supported by the armrest of his chair, and holding a book in his right hand.  Originally just an island of grass at the intersection, the small park in which the statue sits was redesigned by the National Park Service in the late 1960’s to include sidewalks, a water fountain, landscaping, and a number of benches and seating areas which make it a popular location for lunch breaks among the downtown office workers.

The statue was dedicated at a ceremony which was held in May of 1909, and was the first in D.C. to honor an American literary figure.  A number of dignitaries were present at the dedication ceremony, as well as descendants of Longfellow.  Hundreds of spectators and members of the public were also in attendance.  Seats for approximately 700 people were set-up on the Connecticut Avenue side of the park, with an overflow crowd that filled the streets.  During the ceremony Attorney General George W. Wickersham, who was standing in for President William Howard Taft, accepted the statue which was presented by Brainard H. Warner, treasurer of the Longfellow National Memorial Association, which donated the statue.  Melvin Fuller, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and then president of the Memorial Association, presided over the unveiling ceremony.

Born in 1807, Longfellow grew up the second of eight children in Portland, Maine, which was then a part of Massachusetts.  He attended private schools, and went on at the age of fifteen to study at Bowdoin College, a college which had been founded by his grandfather and where his father was a trustee. After spending time in Europe, he became a professor at his alma mater, but later moved to Cambridge to become a professor at Harvard College.  Longfellow was married twice, first to a childhood friend named Mary Storer Potter.  Mary had a miscarriage about six months into her pregnancy, and failed to recover, dying after several weeks of illness.  Shortly after Mary’s death Longfellow began courting Frances “Fanny” Appleton.  They married after a seven-year courtship, and had six children together before she died of burns when her clothing accidentally caught fire in their home.  As a result of his attempts to save her, Longfellow burned himself badly enough to be unable to attend her funeral.  His facial injuries from the fire also led him to stop shaving, thereafter wearing the beard which became his trademark.  By the time Fanny died, Longfellow had retired from teaching to focus on his writing.  Devastated by her death, he never fully recovered, and lived out the rest of his life in Cambridge.  Longfellow is buried with both of his wives at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge.

An American poet and educator, Longfellow is considered one of the most important figures in American literature.  While still in college, he not only decided on his future literary vocation but already began pursuing his goals by submitting poetry to various newspapers and magazines.  He published nearly forty poems by the time he graduated.  During his career Longfellow was also important as a translator.  Among many projects, he was the first American to translate Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy.  But it is for his writing that he is best known and remembered.  Among his many works, Longfellow was probably most known during his day for the poem “Sail On, O Ship of State.”   Today, however, he best remembered for “Paul Revere’s Ride.”  He became a national literary figure by the 1850s, and a world- famous personality by the time of his death in 1882.  His poetry has been a continuous presence and influence in our language ever since.

The Cherry Blossoms Around The Tidal Basin

The Cherry Blossoms Around The Tidal Basin

Of the numerous and varied attractions worth visiting in D.C. and the surrounding area, most are permanent fixtures.  The monunments and memorials, the statues and museums, the buildings and parks – all are available and routinely visited year round.  But one of the capitol city’s biggest attractions is one of the few that is temporary in nature.  Occurring for only a few days each spring, the blooming of the cherry trees surrounding the Tidal Basin is one of the biggest attractions in the city, bringing in visitors from around the country and around the world.

The cherry trees have been a fixture in D.C. for just over a century, but not as long as originally planned.  In the summer of 1909, the Embassy of Japan informed the U.S. Department of State that the city of Tokyo intended to donate 2,000 cherry trees to the United States.  However, when the trees arrived the following year, the inspection team from the Department of Agriculture found that the trees were infested with insects and roundworms, and recommended that the trees be destroyed.  President William Howard Taft subsequently gave the order to burn the trees.

Two years later, a total of 3,020 replacement cherry trees consisting of 12 different species were shipped on Valentines Day, and subsequently arrived in D.C. on March 26.   In a ceremony the following day, First Lady Helen Taft and the wife of the Japanese ambassador planted the first two of these trees on the north bank of the Tidal Basin in West Potomac Park.  Today, these original two trees still stand at the terminus of 17th Street Southwest, marked by a large plaque.  A few years later, the United States government responded with a gift of flowering dogwood trees to the people of Japan.

From 1913 to 1920, trees of the Somei-Yoshino variety, which comprised 1800 of the gift, were planted around the Tidal Basin. Trees of the other 11 species, and the remaining Yoshinos, were planted in East Potomac Park.  In 1965, Japan gifted additional Yoshino trees, many of which were subsequently planted on the grounds of The Washington Monument.  Since then, the number of trees has expanded to approximately 3,750 trees of 16 species in three National Park Service locations – the Tidal Basin in West Potomac Park, East Potomac Park, and on the grounds of the Washington Monument.

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