Posts Tagged ‘Temperance Fountain’

Calvary Baptist Church

Calvary Baptist Church

On this day in 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was ratified, repealing the 18th Amendment and bringing an end to the era of national prohibition of alcohol in the U.S. It should be noted that the consumption of alcohol was never illegal under federal law. Prohibition focused on the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages. However, exceptions were made for medicinal and religious uses. Nationwide prohibition did not begin until 1920, when the 18th Amendment to the Constitution went into effect.  Thirteen years later, what President Woodrow Wilson referred to as “America’s noble experiment” ended.

The movement for the interdiction of alcohol that eventually resulted in Prohibition actually started much earlier – in the early 19th century, when Americans concerned about the adverse effects of drinking began forming temperance societies. By the late part of the century, these groups had become a powerful political force, campaigning on the state level and calling for national liquor abstinence. The Anti-Saloon League was one of the most prominent of these organizations, and eventually spearheaded the lobbying for prohibition in this country.  Calvary Baptist Church, a bright red brick church located at 755 8th Street (MAP) in northwest D.C.’s Penn Quarter neighborhood, is where the first Anti-Saloon League meeting was held. It was also one of my destinations on today’s lunchtime bike ride.

On this ride I also went by a couple of other D.C. locations with connections to Prohibition – The Woodrow Wilson House and D.C.’s Temperance Fountain – despite the fact that I have been to and written in this blog about these locations previously.

While most presidents at that time happily retired back to their home state, Wilson decided to stick around and continued to live in the national Capitol city after leaving office. His second wife, Edith, had lived in D.C. before they met and received a small fortune when her former husband, a prosperous local jeweler, passed away. Woodrow and Edith moved into their newly-acquired Embassy Row home at 2340 S Street (MAP) in 1921.  But it wasn’t an easy move. Prohibition was in effect at the time, and since it forbade the transportation of alcohol, it presented a problem for Wilson, who did not want to leave his fine wine collection behind in The White House for his successor, especially since the recently elected Warren G. Harding was known to be a heavy drinker.  Wilson appealed to Congress, and Congress passed a special law just for him that allowed one person on one specific day “to transport alcohol from 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue to 2340 S Street.”

My last destination for this prohibition-themed bike ride was the Temperance Fountain, located at the corner of Seventh Street and Indiana Avenue in downtown D.C. (MAP).  A temperance fountain was a fountain that was set up, usually by a private benefactor, to encourage people not to drink alcohol by providing safe and free water instead. During the earlier temperance movement, beer was the main alternative to water, and generally safer. The temperance societies had no real alternative as tea and coffee were too expensive, so water fountains were very attractive. One such fountain still exists in D.C. It was one of the ones built by Henry Cogswell, a dentist and a crusader in the temperance movement. It was his dream to construct one temperance fountain for every 100 saloons in the U.S. It is unknown exactly how many Cogswell actually built, but the fountain in D.C. is one of only four that still remain.

After the repeal of the 18th Amendment in 1933, some states continued Prohibition by maintaining statewide temperance laws. Mississippi, the last “dry” state, didn’t end Prohibition until 1966. To this day there continue to be areas within states where prohibition remains in effect, commonly referred to as “dry counties.” There are currently more than 500 counties and municipalities in the U.S. that are dry, including 83 in Alaska. Nearly one half of Mississippi’s counties are dry. And in Florida, four of its 67 counties are dry, all of which are located in the northern part of the state, an area that has cultural ties to the Deep South. And although Moore County, Tennessee, is the home of Jack Daniel’s, a major operational distillery of whiskey, it is also a dry county, so the product is not available at stores or restaurants within the county.

By comparison, D.C. is not dry, and it is very different place today than it was when the Anti-Saloon League was meeting at Calvary Baptist Church and people were drinking water from the Temperance Fountain.  There are currently over 1,900 establishments and businesses that possess liquor licenses to sell alcohol to the 646,449 residents in the 68-square-mile area known as the District of Columbia.  This works out to a bar or liquor store for every 340 residents of our nation’s capitol.

ChristmasDC21     TemperanceMonument01
[Click on photos above to view full size versions]

The Temperance Fountain

The Temperance Fountain

One of the last remaining Temperance Fountains, an ornate reminder of an outdated and failed social movement, can still be found in D.C.   Originally located downtown at the corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and 7th Street, it was moved to its present location in 1987 during the renewal by the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation.  The fountain currently sits at the corner of Seventh Street and Indiana Avenue in northwest D.C. (MAP), across from the National Archives Building and U.S. Navy Memorial, where thousands of tourists and workers walk past daily without noticing it.

It was erected and donated to the city in 1882 by Henry D. Cogswell, a dentist from San Francisco, who was a crusader in the temperance movement.  The fountain was one of a series of fountains throughout the country that he designed and commissioned in a belief that easy access to cool drinking water would keep people from consuming alcoholic beverages in one of the many nearby saloons.

The fountain is an elaborate structure built of granite that Dr. Cogswell designed himself.  It has four granite columns supporting a canopy on whose sides the words “Faith,” “Hope,” “Charity,” and “Temperance” are chiseled.  On top of the structure is a life-sized heron, and the centerpiece is a pair of entwined dolphins from which ice water once flowed from their snouts.  Other fountains he designed were adorned with frogs, pigeons, sea serpents, horses, and gargoyles.  A few even sported a bronze statue of Dr. Cogswell himself, with a water glass or temperance pledge in his outstretched hand.  Passersby could partake using a brass cup attached to the fountain, and the overflow was collected by a trough for horses to drink.  The city got tired of replenishing the ice in a reservoir underneath the base and disconnected the water supply pipes many years ago.  Today it remains as a non-functional memorial to the defunct temperance movement.

These grandiose statues were not well received by the communities where they were placed.  The fountain in San Francisco was torn down by a mob of self-professed art lovers, while the one in Rockville, Connecticut, was thrown into a lake. Although the Temperance Fountain in D.C. remains unscathed, it was considered so ugly by so many that it spurred city councils across the country to set up fine arts commissions to screen such gifts in the future.  However, despite the opposition, the D.C. statue has been placed on the Downtown Historic District National Register, as well as U.S. National Register of Historic Places.

Dr. Cogswell built similar monuments which can still be found in Tompkins Square Park in New York City, and in Rockville, Connecticut.  Other examples were erected and then torn down in Buffalo, Rochester, Boston Common, Fall River, Massachusetts, and Pacific Grove, San Jose and San Francisco, California.